period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance,
lasting from about A.D. 500 - 1450
(text, p. 462)
Architecture: CastlesArchitecture: CathedralsGovernmentLiteratureReligion and KnighthoodSociety and Change
- 476 - The fall of the Roman Empire. Rome had ruled much of Europe. Now much of the land would fall into confusion as local kings and rulers tried to grab power. This is the start of the Dark Ages or the Middle Ages.
- 481 - Clovis becomes King of the Franks. Clovis united most of the Frankish tribes that were part of Roman Province of Gaul.
- 570 - Muhammad, prophet of Islam is born.
- 732 - Battle of Tours. The Franks defeat the Muslims turning back Islam from Europe.
- 800 - Charlemagne, King of the Franks, is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. Charlemagne united much of Western Europe and is considered the father of both the French and the German Monarchies.
- 835 - Vikings from the Scandinavian lands (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) begin to invade northern Europe. They would continue until 1042.
- 896 - Alfred the Great, King of England, turns back the Viking invaders.
- 1066 - William of Normandy, a French Duke, conquers England in the Battle of Hastings. He became King of England and changed the country forever.
- 1096 - Start of the First Crusade. The Crusades were wars between the Holy Roman Empire and the Muslims over the Holy Land. There would be several Crusades over the next 200 years.
- 1189 - Richard I, Richard the Lionheart, becomes King of England.
- 1206 - The Mongol Empire is founded by Genghis Khan.
- 1215 - King John of England signs the Magna Carta. This document gave the people some rights and said the king was not above the law.
- 1271 - Marco Polo leaves on his famous journey to explore Asia.
- 1337 - The Hundred Years War begins between England and France for control of the French throne.
- 1347 - The Black Death begins in Europe. This horrible disease would kill around half of the people in Europe.
- 1431 - French heroine Joan of Arc is executed by England at the age of 19.
- 1444 - German inventor Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press. This will signal the start of the Renaissance.
- 1453 – The Ottoman Empire captures the city of Constantinople. This signals the end of the Eastern Roman Empire also known as Byzantium.
- 1482 - Leonardo Da Vinci paints "The Last Supper"