Civil War & Reconstruction
Reconstruction Scavenger Hunt
Important Instructions: Write the answers to these questions on a separate sheet of paper. Put the number of the question outside the left margin. Answer the question in complete sentences. Leave a space between each question. Underline the main term in your answer. Staple this sheet to the front with your name on it. Failure to comply with these instructions will be an automatic 15 point deduction.
- Explain the purpose of each of the following Civil War Amendments:
- 13th Amendment
- 14th Amendment
- 15th Amendment
- What was the difference between Black Codes and Jim Crow Laws? Give examples of each.
- What was the Tenure of Office Act and what problem did it create for Andrew Johnson?
- Compare and contrast Sharecropping and Tenant Farming. Who held these jobs and what problems did they lead to?
- Describe the role of Edwin Stanton in Reconstruction and Andrew Johnson’s impeachment.
- What was the purpose of the Freedmen’s Bureau? What was its greatest accomplishment? What was its greatest failure?
- What did the phrase “forty acres and a mule” mean and was it accomplished during reconstruction? Why or why not?
- What was the New South and what were the problems within it?
- Explain the difference between Scalawags and Carpetbaggers and their role in the postwar South.
- Explain what occurred in the Election of 1876 between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden and the problem it created.
- What were the terms of the Compromise of 1877 and what issues were left unresolved?
- Who were the Radical Republicans and what were their beliefs? What were the roles of Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens in the group?
- Explain the following plans for Reconstruction:
- Ten Percent Plan
- Presidential Reconstruction
- Radical Reconstruction
- What was the Crop Lien System and how did it affect poor whites and freedmen?
- What was the goal of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and what was its fate?
- Who were the Redeemers and what role did they play in the New South?
- Explain why Ulysses S. Grant was elected in 1868 and how “waving the bloody shirt” got him elected.
- What was the Wade Davis Bill and how did Abraham Lincoln feel about it?
- What was the Solid South?
- What was the role of John Wilkes Booth in American history?
- Explain the following scandals from Grant’s presidency:
- Credit Mobilier
- Whiskey Ring
- What was the role of the Ku Klux Klan in the post-war South?
What was Reconstruction, what were its goals, and how long did it last?
Civil War Web Quest
Click on the link below to access the website and answer the following questions:
Answer the following questions in complete sentences:
Section 1 – John Brown
- What was the goal of the Confederate forces?
- Describe the Sharp’s rifle.
- Which type of revolver did John Brown send 2,000 of to the Kansas Territory?
- What was a “slave collar” and what was it used for?
Section 2 – The Civil War Begins
- What percent of the popular vote did Lincoln win?
- What oath did Lincoln claim in his inaugural address?
- What did Jefferson Davis have over Lincoln? (Background)
- What did the 1864 Campaign Ribbon say on it?
- What famous American was on the Great Seal of the Confederacy?
Section 3 – Battle of Bull Run
- Summarize the opening paragraph of this section.
- What is the Confederate Battle Flag known as?
Section 4 – Turning Points
- List 2 facts for each battle:
- On what side was General William T. Sherman?
- Describe what is meant by Sherman’s March.
Section 5 – The War at Sea
- What were the Union’s two goals?
- What were the CSA’s two goals?
- On March 9, 1862 the battle between Ironclads ________ and _______ was a dramatic turning point in the war at sea.
Section 6 – From Wilderness to Appomattox
- How many Union troops and Confederate troops fought in the Wilderness battle that lasted 44 days?
- Union à
- Confederate à
- Where did Grant attack in 1864 hoping to cut into the rail lines that sent supplies to Richmond?
- Where did Lee surrender?
- Who did Lee surrender to?
- How many Americans were killed and wounded?
- Killed à
- Wounded à
Section 7 -- Leaders
- When did Lincoln decide to free the Slaves in the south?
- On what date did the Emancipation Proclamation go into effect?
- Who did Lincoln name as General of the Union troops?
- Lincoln’s main opponent in the 1864 election was _____, who Lincoln replaced as General of the Army of the Potomac.
- Lincoln won reelection with _____% of the popular vote.
Section 8 – Military Leaders
- Who were the Generals of each side?
- Union à
- Confederacy à
- What job was the Confederate General offered before accepting that role?
- Read the section on Grants Field Glasses. Write down Lincoln’s quote regarding Grant.
- What famous quote did Rear Admiral David Farragut say during the Battle of Mobile Bay?
Section 9 – Soldiers in Blue and Gray
- Compare and Contrast the Union Infantry with the Confederate Infantry.
Please view the pictures in the rest of this section.
- Pick TWO of the most interesting artifacts and describe each.
- Describe the Confederate Spies in the “Cast of Characters section.”
Section 10 – Bloody Battles
- What is the minie ball?
- List 2 weapons and give a brief history of each.
- What is the Spotsylvania Tree Stump?
Section 11 – Legacy: Reconstruction
- What was Lincoln’s hope for after the war?
- Lincoln’s assassination:
- What profession was the shooter?
- What part of the body was he shot?
- Who succeeded Lincoln as President?
- What 3 Amendments were added to the US Constitution as a result of the Civil War?
CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
Also known as the Seven Years War, this war was fought over conflicting territorial claims between the French and British in the Ohio River Valley. The British victory resulted in virtual expulsion of the French in North America, and the rationalization of taxing the Americans to recoup monetary losses.
The 1765 Stamp Act required colonists to pay a tax (in the form of a stamp) on printed documents, various licenses, and other goods. Colonists rebelled and terrorized British tax collectors.
The Townshend Act of 1767 authorized Parliament to issue taxes on in-demand imports such as glass, lead, paint, paper and tea. British soldiers had to be brought into Boston to prevent an uprising.
Tension over the presence of British troops in Boston led to the Boston Massacre, the first episode which resulted in the loss of life. Four Bostonians were killed when Redcoats fired into an angry mob.
Angry Bostonians known as the Sons of Liberty boarded a British tea vessel dressed as Indians and dumped all of its tea into Boston Harbor in protest of the Tea tax. This event resulted in the Intolerable Acts.
With war looming, the Continental Congress was formed for the purposes of drawing consensus within the colonies for action against the growing threat of British occupation.
Common Sense, one of the most influential pamphlets in American history galvanized the American public to support the Revolution and condemn the monarchy in England.
EFFECTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
The purpose of this iconic American document was to tell the world why America was breaking away from British rule
This document outlined the terms of the British surrender in 1783. Its ratification officially ended the Revolution, making America a free country.
America’s first attempt at organized government was the ill-conceived Articles of Confederation. This government gave the new “states” too much power and was insufficient as a means of governing a nation.
The 1787 Constitutional Convention resulted in the elimination of the Articles of Confederation and the formation of a new, more effective government and constitution.
The Federalist Papers were a series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, which outlined reasons why the states should ratify the Constitution.
Although many legislators believed a Bill of Rights was not necessary as part of the Constitution, it was nevertheless included. The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
Trials and Tribulations of a New Nation
Foreign policy issues, newspaper wars, and partisan politics threatened to destroy the new nation in its
Gettysburg Address - Please put this speech into you own words.
"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.
We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as the final resting place of those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.
It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.
The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work that they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us, that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
President Abraham Lincoln, at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg,
Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863Primary Document 1
Thomas Wentworth Higginson Assesses the Black Soldier
Thomas Wentworth Higginson
Only after the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 were African American troops permitted to join the Union forces. Once in the military, they were segregated in black units led by white commanders, a condition that endured through World War II. Despite discrimination in pay and assignments, African American troops served with distinction; even those who had objected to black enlistments came to respect the African American soldiers. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, who had commanded a black regiment, was especially supportive of black troops; he later wrote an account of his experience.
Questions to Consider
- What qualities does the author single out as particularly praiseworthy in regard to the black soldier?
- How does the excerpt clarify why African Americans were willing to fight for a government that still discriminated against them?
- What was the significance of the decision to use blacks in combat, both short and long term?
. . . [T]hey were very much like other men. General Saxton, examining with some impatience a long list of questions from some philanthropic Commission at the North, respecting the traits and habits of the freedmen, bade some staff-officer answer them all in two words,—"Intensely human." We all admitted that it was a striking and comprehensive description.
For instance, as to courage. So far as I have seen, the mass of men are naturally courageous up to a certain point. A man seldom runs away from danger which he ought to face, unless others run; each is apt to keep with the mass, and colored soldiers have more than usual of this gregariousness. In almost every regiment, black or white, there are a score or two of men who are naturally daring, who really hunger after dangerous adventures, and are happiest when allowed to seek them. Every commander gradually finds out who these men are, and habitually uses them; certainly I had such, and I remember with delight their bearing, their coolness, and their dash. . . . The mass of the regiment rose to the same level under excitement, and were more excitable, I think, than whites, but neither more nor less courageous.
Perhaps the best proof of a good average of courage among them was in the readiness they always showed for any special enterprise. I do not remember ever to have had the slightest difficulty in obtaining volunteers, but rather in keeping down the number. The previous pages include many illustrations of this, as well as of their endurance of pain and discomfort. . . .
. . . As to the simple general fact of courage and reliability I think no officer in our camp ever thought of there being any difference between black and white. And certainly the opinions of these officers, who for years risked their lives every moment on the fidelity of their men, were worth more than those of all the world beside.
No doubt there were reasons why this particular war was an especially favorable test of the colored soldiers. They had more to fight for than the whites. Besides the flag and the Union, they had home and wife and child. They fought with ropes round their necks, and when orders were issued that the officers of colored troops should be put to death on capture, they took a grim satisfaction. It helped their esprit de corps immensely. . . .Primary Document 2Louisiana Black Code
After the region's slaves were freed, Southern communities passed laws called "black codes" to control black citizens. The first states to pass black codes were Mississippi and South Carolina; other Southern states soon followed. Exact provisions of these laws varied from state to state, but their effect was similar. Read the following provisions of a Louisiana parish's black codes and evaluate their impact.
Questions to Consider
- What were the black codes?
- List some of the restrictions placed on black citizens in this Louisiana parish.
- Why were these black codes so restrictive?
- Speculate about how these laws were enforced.
- What impact would these laws have had on the black community?
. . . Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the police jury of the parish of St. Landry, That no negro shall be allowed to pass within the limits of said parish without special permit in writing from his employer. Whoever shall violate this provision shall pay a fine of two dollars and fifty cents, or in default thereof shall be forced to work four days on the public road, or suffer corporeal punishment as provided hereinafter. . . .
Sec. 3. . . . No negro shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within said parish. Any negro violating this provision shall be immediately ejected and compelled to find an employer; and any person who shall rent, or give the use of any house to any negro, in violation of this section, shall pay a fine of five dollars for each offence.
Sec. 4. . . . Every negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person, or former owner, who shall be held responsible for the conduct of said negro. But said employer or former owner may permit said negro to hire his own time by special permission in writing, which permission shall not extend over seven days at any one time. . . .
Sec. 5. . . . No public meetings or congregations of negroes shall be allowed within said parish after sunset; but such public meetings and congregations may be held between the hours of sunrise and sunset, by the special permission in writing of the captain of patrol, within whose beat such meetings shall take place. . . .
Sec. 6. . . . No negro shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people, without a special permission in writing from the president of the police jury. . . .
Sec. 7. . . . No negro who is not in the military service shall be allowed to carry fire-arms, or any kind of weapons, within the parish, without the special written permission of his employers, approved and indorsed by the nearest and most convenient chief of patrol. . . .
Sec. 8. . . . No negro shall sell, barter, or exchange any articles of merchandise or traffic within said parish without the special written permission of his employer, specifying the article of sale, barter or traffic. . . .
Sec. 9. . . . Any negro found drunk, within the said parish shall pay a fine of five dollars, or in default thereof work five days on the public road, or suffer corporeal punishment as hereinafter provided.
Sec. 11. . . . It shall be the duty of every citizen to act as a police officer for the detection of offences and the apprehension of offenders, who shall be immediately handed over to the proper captain or chief of patrol. . . .Primary Document 3Southern Skepticism of the Freedmen's Bureau
James D. B. De Bow
James D. B. De Bow published a commercial and agricultural journal in New Orleans in which he advocated industrialization for the South as a means to revive the economy, reduce the South's dependence on Northern goods, and mitigate the North's criticism of slavery. As a publisher attuned to and familiar with economic conditions in the South, De Bow was asked by the House Committee on Reconstruction to give an assessment of the Freedmen's Bureau's effectiveness.
Questions to Consider
- What was James D. B. De Bow's opinion of the Freedmen's Bureau?
- Using the document and the discussion in your textbook, do you think that De Bow was justified in his assessment of the Freedmen's Bureau? Why or why not?
- According to De Bow, how had conditions changed in the South with regard to the labor system, the role of women, and opportunities for education or religious fellowship?
- How does knowing who De Bow was help you understand his view on the Freedmen's Bureau and his description of conditions in the South after the Civil War?
- Using the document, what can you predict about the emerging labor system in the South? Support your prediction.
. . . Question. What is your opinion of the necessity or utility of the Freedmen's Bureau, or of any agency of that kind?
Answer. I think if the whole regulation of the negroes, or freedmen, were left to the people of the communities in which they live, it will be administered for the best interest of the negroes as well as of the white men. I think there is a kindly feeling on the part of the planters towards the freedmen. They are not held at all responsible for anything that has happened. They are looked upon as the innocent cause. In talking with a number of planters, I remember some of them telling me they were succeeding very well with their freedmen, having got a preacher to preach to them and a teacher to teach them, believing it was for the interest of the planter to make the negro feel reconciled; for, to lose his services as a laborer for even a few months would be very disastrous. The sentiment prevailing is, that it is for the interest of the employer to teach the negro, to educate his children, to provide a preacher for him, and to attend to his physical wants. And I may say I have not seen any exception to that feeling in the south. Leave the people to themselves, and they will manage very well. The Freedmen's Bureau, or any agency to interfere between the freedman and his former master, is only productive of mischief. There are constant appeals from one to the other and continual annoyances. It has a tendency to create dissatisfaction and disaffection on the part of the laborer, and is in every respect in its result most unfavorable to the system of industry that is now being organized under the new order of things in the south. . . .
Question. What is your opinion as to the relative advantages . . . of the present system of free labor, as compared with that of slavery as it heretofore existed in this country?
Answer. If the negro would work, the present system is much cheaper. If we can get the same amount of labor from the same persons, there is no doubt of the result in respect to economy. Whether the same amount of labor can be obtained, it is too soon yet to decide. We must allow one summer to pass first. They are working now very well on the plantations. That is the general testimony. The negro women are not disposed to field work as they formerly were, and I think there will be less work from them in the future than there has been in the past. The men are rather inclined to get their wives into other employment, and I think that will be the constant tendency, just as it is with the whites. Therefore, the real number of agricultural laborers will be reduced. I have no idea if the efficiency of those who work will be increased. If we can only keep up their efficiency to the standard before the war, it will be better for the south, without doubt, upon the mere money question, because it is cheaper to hire the negro than to own him. Now a plantation can be worked without any outlay of capital by hiring the negro and hiring the plantation. . . .
Question. What arrangements are generally made among the landholders and the black laborers in the south?
Answer. I think they generally get wages. A great many persons, however, think it better to give them an interest in the crops. That is getting to be very common. . . .